Fields of medicine

Fields of medicine

Clinical practice – Fields of medicine

A clinician is a health worker who works directly with patients in a hospital or other healthcare setting. Nurses, doctors, psychotherapists, and other specialists are all clinicians.

Not all medical specialists are clinicians. Researchers and laboratory workers are not clinicians because they do not work with patients.

The physician assesses the individual, with the aim of diagnosing, treating, and preventing disease using knowledge learned from training, research, and experiences, and clinical judgment.

Biomedical research – Fields of medicine

This area of science seeks ways to prevent and treat diseases that lead to illness or death.

Biomedical scientists use biotechnology techniques to study biological processes and diseases. They aim to develop successful treatments and cures.

Biomedical research requires careful experimentation, development, and evaluation. It involves biologists, chemists, doctors, pharmacologists, and others.

Medications – Fields of medicine

This field looks at drugs or medicines and how to use them.

Doctors and other health professionals use medications in the medical diagnosis, treatment, cure, and prevention of disease.

Surgery – Fields of medicine

Surgical procedures are necessary for diagnosing and treating some types of disease, malformation, and injury. They use instrumental and manual means rather than medication.

A surgeon may carry out a surgical procedure to remove or replace diseased tissue or organs, or they may use surgery to remove tissue for biopsy. Sometimes, they remove unwanted tissue and then send it for diagnosis.

Medical devices

Health professionals use a wide range of instruments to diagnose and treat a disease or other condition, to prevent a worsening of symptoms, to replace a damaged part — such as a hip or a knee — and so on.

Medical devices range from test tubes to sophisticated scanning machines.

Alternative and complementary medicine

This includes any practice that aims to heal but is not part of conventional medicine. Techniques range widely. They include the use of herbs, manipulation of “channels” in the body, relaxation, and so on.

Alternative and complementary do not have the same meaning:

Alternative medicine: People use a different option from the conventional one, such as using relaxation measures to improve headaches, rather than pain relief medication.

Complementary medicine: People add another treatment option to the main treatment. For example, they may use relaxation as well as pain relief medication for a headache.

Alternative and complementary therapies are often based on traditional knowledge, rather than scientific evidence or clinical trials.

Examples include homeopathy, acupuncture, Ayurveda, naturopathic medicine, and traditional Chinese medicine.

Clinical research

Researchers carry out investigations to find out which diseases are present, why they occur, what can treat or prevent them, which makes them more likely to happen, and many other aspects of health.

Clinical trials are one aspect of clinical research. They aim to find out if a therapy — often a drug — is safe and effective to use when treating a specific condition.

The most effective way to demonstrate the effectiveness of a drug or technique is to carry out a double-blind, random, long-term, large clinical human study.

In this type of study, researchers compare the effect of a therapy or drug in with either a placebo, no treatment, or another therapy or drug.


Counseling, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), and other forms of “talking cure” can be helpful for people with conditions that affect their mental health, ranging from depression to stress to chronic pain.

Physical and occupational therapy
These treatments do not involve medication, although a person may use medication alongside them.

Physical therapy can help improve strength and flexibility in people who have a condition that affects their musculoskeletal system.

Occupational therapy can teach people new and better ways to do things physically. A person who has had a stroke, for example, may benefit from learning again how to walk, using techniques that perhaps they did not use before.

Other fields of medicine include pharmacology and pharmacy, nursing, speech therapy, medical practice management, and many more.

If you are interested in the studies of medicine or considering medicine as a career, there are a wide variety of options. Check out the list below.


UniversitiesTuition Fees (6 years)Language of instruction
Comenius Medical University in Bratislava, Slovakia10,500 euro per yearEnglish
Safarik Medical University in Kosice, Slovakia10,500 euro per yearEnglish
Jessenius Medical University in Martin, Slovakia9,900 euro per yearEnglish
Carol Davila University of Medicine in Bucharest, Romania8,000 euro per yearEnglish & French
Iuliu Hațieganu University of Medicine in Cluj, Romania8,000 euro per yearEnglish & French
Gr.T. Popa Medical University in Iasi, Romania7,500 euro per yearEnglish & French
Ovidius Medical University in Constanta, Romania6,000 euro per yearEnglish & French
Victor Babes University of Medicine in Timisoara, Romania 7,500 euro per yearEnglish
Medical University of Sofia in Sofia, Bulgaria9,000 euro per yearEnglish
Medical University of Varna in Varna, Bulgaria9,000 euro per yearEnglish
Medical University of Plovdiv in Plovdiv, Bulgaria9,000 euro per yearEnglish
Medical University of Novi Sad in Novi Sad, Serbia6,500 euro per yearEnglish
Semmelweis University of Medicine in Budapest, Hungary18,200 USD per yearEnglish
University of Medicine in Szeged, Hungary15,200 USD per yearEnglish
University of Medicine in Pecs, Hungary16,750 USD per yearEnglish
Medical University of Vienna in Vienna, AustriaNo tuition feesGerman Only
Charles University of Medicine in Prague, Czech Republic19,400 – 21,050 euro per yearEnglish
Palacky University of Medicine in Olomouc, Czech Republic11,700 euro per yearEnglish
Ostrava University of Medicine in Ostrava, Czech Republic8,500 euro per yearEnglish
Medical University of Athens, Greece13,000 euro per yearEnglish
European University of Medicine, Cyprus21,000 euro per yearEnglish